Global health review

MSF outreach workers test people for kala azar, Fulbaria, Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. Caption
MSF outreach workers test people for kala azar, Fulbaria, Mymensingh district, Bangladesh.

A weekly round-up of all the latest global health research from MSF projects and beyond

7 June 2024       

This week in Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, MSF researchers observed high use of antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infections among pregnant refugees in an MSF sexual health clinic in Beirut, Lebanon. Researchers suggest incorporating urine culture and a urine dipstick test as an affordable and accessible methodology to address antimicrobial resistance. In the Journal of Clinical Medicine, Epicentre and MSF evaluated the use of Lung Ultrasound Score (LUS) to identify high-risk COVID-19 pneumonia patients in hospitals. Results suggest upon admission, the LUS score had limited performance in identifying those with severe lung disease but a score of ≥17 was associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes for the patient.


Conflict and Health examined how the Lebanese government integrated Syrian refugees into Lebanon’s healthcare system between 2011 and 2022. Lessons learnt from the case study suggest strengthening primary health centres, reducing dependence on international funding, monitoring refugee health data, and establishing policies for refugees to engage in healthcare. The BMJ reports COVID-19 vaccine manufacturers are pressuring low and middle-income countries into accepting high prices with harsh terms and conditions. Finally, PLOS Global Public Health, analysed demographic and socio-economic factors among children who are non-vaccinated, under-vaccinated or missed their opportunity for vaccination in Kenya.



Best regards


Lydia Lampiri, Mohammad Salaymeh, Ononna Thuli and Holly Baker with MSF-authored article assistance from Patricia Kahn and Camryn Lewis.


All MSF-authored publications can be found on the MSF Science Portal, as well as recordings, abstracts and posters from the MSF Scientific Days International 2023 conference.

Antimicrobial resistance

Bull World Health Organ. • Article***MSF AUTHOR***: Overuse of antibiotics for urinary tract infections in pregnant refugees, Lebanon

Climate change and Planetary Health

The BMJ • News: India heatwave: Delhi records its highest ever temperature

Conflict, migration and health

Conflict and Health • Comment: Five recommendations to advance implementation science for humanitarian settings: the next frontier of humanitarian research

Conflict and Health • Article: Integrating Syrian refugees into Lebanon’s healthcare system 2011–2022: a mixed-method study

Conflict and Health • Comment: Rebuilding the health sector in Gaza: alternative humanitarian voices

The BMJ • News: Sudan: Aid workers describe “bloodbath” in Darfur as hospitals are repeatedly attacked



eBioMedicine • Article: Ebola virus-induced eye sequelae: a murine model for evaluating glycoprotein-targeting therapeutics


Global health

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: “Something we can all share”: Exploring the social significance of food insecurity for young people in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

BMJ Global Health • Comment: Assessments of the performance of pandemic preparedness measures must properly account for national income

WHO Bulletin • other: Health system evaluation: new options, opportunities and limits

The BMJ • News: Improving infection prevention could avoid 750 000 deaths a year, say experts

The BMJ • Opinion: New WHO guidance can support transparent and informed engagement with the private sector

The BMJ • News: Pandemic treaty: panel calls for “reset” to talks as negotiators miss deadline

BMJ Global Health • Analysis: Reconciling devolution with health financing and public financial management: challenges and policy options for the health sector

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: The Female Global Scholars Program: A mixed-methods evaluation of a novel intervention to promote the retention and advancement of women in global health research

BMJ Global Health • Article: Toward a more systematic understanding of water insecurity coping strategies: insights from 11 global sites

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: WHO framework on meaningful engagement: A transformational approach to integrate lived experience in the noncommunicable disease and mental health agenda



The Lancet HIV • Article: Dynamics of virological and immunological markers of HIV persistence after allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in the IciStem cohort: a prospective observational cohort study

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: Geospatial and temporal mapping of detectable HIV-1 viral loads amid dolutegravir rollout in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

PLOS Medicine • Article: Incidence of self-reported tuberculosis treatment with community-wide universal testing and treatment for HIV and tuberculosis screening in Zambia and South Africa: A planned analysis of the HPTN 071 (PopART) cluster-randomised trial

The Lancet Global Health • Article: Predicting mortality within 1 year of ART initiation in children and adolescents living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a retrospective observational cohort study

The Lancet Infectious Diseases • Article: Switch to long-acting cabotegravir and rilpivirine in virologically suppressed adults with HIV in Africa (CARES): week 48 results from a randomised, multicentre, open-label, non-inferiority trial

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: Uptake of multi-level HIV interventions and HIV-related behaviours among young people in rural South Africa


Infectious diseases

Journal of Clinical Med. • Article***EPICENTRE AUTHOR***: Evaluation of a Lung Ultrasound Score in Hospitalized Adult Patients with COVID-19 in Barcelona, Spain

The BMJ • News: Gaza: Just one working hospital remains in Rafah, as healthcare worker death toll reaches 500

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: Hand contamination and hand hygiene knowledge and practices among commercial transport users after the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) scare, Enugu State, Nigeria

IJTLD • Article: Phenotyping chronic respiratory diseases with airways obstruction



Malaria Journal • Article: Combined use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis larviciding, a promising integrated approach against malaria transmission in northern Côte d'Ivoire

Malaria Journal • Article: Examining the paradox: increased malaria risk in children under 5 in female-headed households in Nigeria

Malaria Journal • Article: Forest cover percentage drives the peak biting time of Nyssorhynchus darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

Malaria Journal • Article: Health workers’ adherence to malaria case management protocols in Northern Sudan: a qualitative study

Malaria Journal • Article: Ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets in Myanmar: insights from a nationally representative demographic and health survey

Malaria Journal • Article: Residual bioefficacy of attractive targeted sugar bait stations targeting malaria vectors during seasonal deployment in Western Province of Zambia

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: Urbanization and malaria have a contextual relationship in endemic areas: A temporal and spatial study in Ghana


Maternal and child health

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: Determinants for male involvement in family planning and contraception in Nakawa Division, Kampala, Uganda; An urban slum qualitative study

PLOS Medicine • Article: Factors influencing the participation of pregnant and lactating women in clinical trials: A mixed-methods systematic review


Mental health

The Lancet Psychiaty • Article: Worldwide incidence of suicides in prison: a systematic review with meta-regression analyses


Neglected tropical diseases

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: Analytic optimization of Plasmodium falciparum marker gene haplotype recovery from amplicon deep sequencing of complex mixtures

PLOS NTDs • Article: Cardiac cystic echinococcosis—A systematic review and analysis of the literature

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: Community preferred drug delivery approaches for pilot roll-out of a potential novel paediatric schistosomiasis treatment option in two endemic counties of Kenya: A mixed methods study

PLOS NTDs • Article: Comparison of the intrageneric neutralization scope of monospecific, bispecific/monogeneric and polyspecific/monogeneric antisera raised in horses immunized with sub-Saharan African snake venoms

PLOS NTDs • Article: Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for severe dengue fever and West Nile fever: A meta-analysis

PLOS NTDs • Article: Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Burkholderia pseudomallei from Riau Province, Indonesia

The Lancet Regional Health: Americas • Article: Exploring the urban arbovirus landscape in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: transmission dynamics and patterns of disease spread

PLOS NTDs • Article: Inflammatory and immunopathological differences in brains of permissive and non-permissive hosts with Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection can be identified using 18F/FDG/PET-imaging

PLOS NTDs • Article: Knowledge and practices related to plague persistence in plague-endemic foci, Mbulu District, Tanzania

PLOS NTDs • Article: Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding dengue among non-health undergraduate students of Nepal

The Lancet Regional Health: Western Pacific • Article: Molecular and clinical epidemiology of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacterales in Fiji: a multicentre prospective observational study

PLOS NTDs • Article: Novel paradigm enables accurate monthly gestational screening to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis and more

PLOS NTDs • Article: Photobiomodulation mitigates Bothrops jararacussu venom-induced damage in myoblast cells by enhancing myogenic factors and reducing cytokine production

PLOS NTDs • Article: Re-emergence and influencing factors of mountain-type zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the extension region of Loess Plateau, China

Tropical Medicine and International Health • Review: Rickettsia africae infections in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic literature review of epidemiological studies and summary of case reports

PLOS NTDs • Article: Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Eastern Bhutan

PLOS NTDs • Article: Transmission of viable Haemophilus ducreyi by Musca domestica

PLOS NTDs • Article: Understanding how neglected tropical diseases programs in five Asia-Pacific countries adjusted to the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative study


Non-communicable diseases

The Lancet Global Health • Article: Cancer survival in sub-Saharan Africa (SURVCAN-3): a population-based study

The Lancet Global Health • Article: Handheld echocardiography for the screening and diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease: a systematic review to inform WHO guidelines

JAMA Network Open • Article: International Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Durvalumab in Stage III Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: Socioeconomic gradient of lean diabetes in India: Evidence from National Family Health Survey, 2019–21

IJTLD • Letters: The clinical impact of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in interstitial lung diseases



PLOS Global Public Health • Article: Tanzania’s first Marburg Viral Disease outbreak response: Describing the roles of FELTP graduates and residents

JAMA • News: WHO: As Mpox Outbreaks Continue, Cases May Be Underestimated


Research and reporting

WHO Bulletin • Article: Applying the WHO-UNICEF primary health care measurement framework; Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

The Lancet Global Health • Article: Can primary health care mitigate the effects of economic crises on child health in Latin America? An integrated multicountry evaluation and forecasting analysis

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: COVID-19 contact tracing and quarantine policies in the Indo-Pacific Region: A mixed-methods study of experiences of public health professionals

The Lancet Global Health • Article: Factors associated with medical consumable availability in level 1 facilities in Malawi: a secondary analysis of a facility census

The Lancet Regional Health: Americas • Article: Future health expenditures and its determinants in Latin America and the Caribbean: a multi-country projection study

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: Regaining policy attention for a health insurance capitation payment reform in Ghana: A prospective policy analysis

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: The role of Zambia’s expansive Inter-agency Coordinating Committee (ICC) in supporting evidence-based vaccine and health sector programming


Sexual and reproductive health

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: Spatial clustering of domestic violence attitudes toward women in Ghana

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: What does your partner want? Using a gender equality lens to assess partner support and involvement in family planning in Uganda



IJTLD • Article: Aetiology of pleural effusions in children living in a high TB endemic setting

PLOS Medicine • Article: Barriers to engagement in the care cascade for tuberculosis disease in India: A systematic review of quantitative studies

IJTLD • Correspondence: Careful classification of potential bedaquiline resistance mutations is critical when analysing their clinical impact

IJTLD • Correspondence: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis: a neglected post-TB lung disease

The Lancet Global Health • Article: Economic implications of novel regimens for tuberculosis treatment in three high-burden countries: a modelling analysis

IJTLD • Article: Incidence of tuberculous infection in a TB-endemic city

IJTLD • Letters: Limitations of using tuberculin skin test to screen for TB in patients with psoriasis

IJTLD • Article: Outcomes of childhood TB in countries with a universal BCG vaccination policy

IJTLD • Editorial: Pediatric TB treatment outcomes: targets for improvement

The Lancet Global Health • Article: Post-exposure prophylaxis in leprosy (PEOPLE): a cluster randomised trial

WHO Bulletin • Practice: Target regimen profiles for tuberculosis treatment

IJTLD • Letters: TB diagnoses and mortality in hospitalized people living with HIV in South Africa



The BMJ • News: Covid-19: South African disclosures reveal secretive world of nations’ vaccine contracts

PLOS Global Public Health • Article: Structural and social factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine uptake among healthcare workers and older people in Uganda: A qualitative analysis