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Palestine: Hopes and fears in Gaza's mental health crisis

30 Jun 21

Palestine: Hopes and fears in Gaza's mental health crisis

Surviving Gaza: the hopes and perils of living under blockade Caption
A Palestinian walks through debris in Gaza City following 11 days of intense aerial and ground bombardments

Twelve-year-old Mohanned was in the car with his aunt on 11 May, when an airstrike hit the neighbourhood they were driving through. 

Mohanned survived the blast but sustained multiple injuries to his head, arm and abdomen from the shrapnel. 

“Look at him,” says his father, Elsabea Musabeh, lifting his son’s T-shirt to show wide layers of gauze dressing wrapped around Mohanned’s waist. 

“He is a child. What did he do to deserve this?”

“There is a war here every few years,” continues Elsabea. “We are used to this – it’s just life. We don’t cry over destroyed buildings anymore. Our children are our only worry.”

"It was like nothing we have lived through before. We felt like those were the final minutes of our lives.” 

Amira Karim
|
MSF mental health counsellor

It has been several weeks since Mohanned was discharged from hospital. Some of his injuries have healed but the psychological trauma of the experience is still fresh. He doesn’t like speaking about the incident as it brings back memories, says Elsabea. 

“He remembers everything.” 

The bombardment

For most Palestinians in Gaza, the 11 days of intensive Israeli bombardment in May were not the first time they had experienced airstrikes. 

The mental trauma of fearing for your life, of seeing your home in ruins and of the economic hardship that comes with such experiences has long-term consequences for many people. Particularly when it comes on top of pre-existing trauma from previous rounds of violence, as well as life under 15 years of blockade. 

The latest offensive has made the mental health crisis in Gaza more acute and made it even harder for people to cope.

Surviving Gaza: the hopes and perils of living under blockade Caption
Families walking through the streets of Gaza
Surviving Gaza: the hopes and perils of living under blockade Caption
Debris being cleared after an airstrike destroyed a residential tower block in Gaza City

When her house was bombed at night, Salma Shamali, 36, her husband and their seven children only just managed to escape. 

“We heard at least 15 explosions,” says Salma. 

“We were all in one room. The children were sleeping. Then part of the house fell on us. We were confused. Nobody warned us or told us to evacuate.” 

It took them several hours stumbling through the dark to reach the relative safety of a nearby bus station, where they took cover for five hours. From the bus station, they moved to a school. 

When the family returned home a week later, they found their house was badly damaged. They have had to rent another house. 

Surviving Gaza: the hopes and perils of living under blockade Caption
People throughout Gaza have lost homes and family members, suffering long-term psychological trauma

Despite the ceasefire agreement last month, the Israeli government has launched further airstrikes on the Strip on two occasions since then, while the piercing sound of drones in the sky over Gaza has not stopped. 

This noise torments people night after night, keeping them awake and alert. Salma’s children hide every time they hear it now. 

“We don’t want war,” they say, crying.

She tries to keep calm and not to lose hope. 

A shared experience

For Amira Karim, a mental health counsellor who provides psychological support to patients in MSF’s clinic in Gaza City, the stories of patients affected by the recent bombings – and particularly stories of children – have triggered her own traumatic memories. 

“I remembered the extreme fear of death,” says Amira. 

“I remembered how my kids held me tight when bombs were exploding close to my house at midnight. It was like nothing we have lived through before. We felt like those were the final minutes of our lives.” 

Surviving Gaza: the hopes and perils of living under blockade Caption
Over 40 percent of the two million Palestinians living in Gaza are children aged 14 or under

In Gaza, everyone is exposed continually to the causes of psychological trauma, including healthcare workers. Their resilience is put to the test on a daily basis as they help others while also facing the same traumatic events.

“During the latest escalation of violence, I did my best to provide support to everyone I could reach – my patients, colleagues, friends and family,” says MSF psychologist Mahmoud Zeyad Awad. 

"This was while living through the same experience myself and processing the loss of two of my friends. Seeing patients feeling better gives me strength to keep doing this job, but I’m afraid of failing my patients or of becoming a patient myself.”

A mental health crisis

“Everyone in Gaza is affected,” says MSF psychiatrist Juan Paris. 

A reported 40 percent of young Gazans suffer from mood disorders, 60-70 percent suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder and 90 percent suffer from other stress-related conditions. 

Surviving Gaza: the hopes and perils of living under blockade Caption
A Palestinian man stands inside a destroyed apartment in Gaza city
Surviving Gaza: the hopes and perils of living under blockade Caption
The 11 days of bombardments had a devastating impact on daily life and mental health

“The number of suicides and attempted suicides rose steadily in 2020,” says Paris.

"But they’re clearly under-reported because of the stigma around mental health issues in Palestinian society.”

To support patients, staff and their families, MSF has scaled up its mental health services in Gaza.

“People in Gaza are resilient,” summarises Paris. 

“Their resilience comes from a strong sense of commitment to their community, but it is being put to the test daily as they continue being re-exposed to trauma. They have to endure this to be able to help others.” 

MSF in Occupied Palestinian Territories

Palestine comprises parts of modern Israel and the Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.

This region, known as the Holy Land, holds religious significance for Christians, Muslims and Jews, and has been the object of conflicting claims, which has led to prolonged violence and, at times, open warfare.

On Monday 10 May 2021, Médecins Sans Frontières / Doctors Without Borders (MSF) started supporting the Palestinian Red Crescent Society (PRCS) in Jerusalem to assess and stabilise hundreds of Palestinians injured by the Israeli police.

Between 10 – 18 May 2021, Israeli airstrikes and shelling killed 213 people, including 61 children, and injured more than 1,400. Twelve people, including two children, have been killed in Israel by rockets and missiles launched by Palestinian armed groups.